The search string can be typed in upper or lower case, it makes no difference.
When Greek words are searched in transcription (especially useful in the fields proper names and mythological names), the following rules should be observed:
Only in the first field (Greek texts) search strings should be typed in beta code, in accordance with the conversion table visible on the Search Page.
Marking word boundary with ">" and "<": by default each search command is treated as a continuous string of letters. So if you use tyr as the search string in the field 'Mythological names', it will match any word with tyr in it, including Tyro, Tyros, Satyroi, etc. However, as this can lead to a large number of extraneous matches, you may prefer to limit a search by specifying the word boundaries. This can be done by means of the symbols ">" and "<". Thus, >tyr indicates that the "t" must be the first character in the word. This search will not match Satyroi. Also, yro< indicates that the "o" must be the last character in the word. This search will not match Tyros. Finally, both symbols can be used, >tyro< will only match Tyro and no other word.
The wildcard character "$": the dollar sign ($) can be used as wildcard character. So if a query word contains a "$" any character will match that position. E.g. if you don't remember the exact spelling of a personal name such as Huys, Huis or Huss, you can execute the query Hu$s to be certain that the correct spelling is included in the results.
The combination of two or more search strings is always interpreted as boolean 'AND': this implies that only papyri are selected that match both criteria at the same time:
For search strings to be interpreted as boolean 'OR' you can use a slash (without space before or after) so that all papyri are selected that match one of both or one of several criteria. For example the string hypothesis/commentary in the genre field yields all papyri containing either a hypothesis or a commentary.
Searching for an exact phrase can be done by including the search string between single quotation marks. For example the search command 'school text' only selects the records where the words school and text appear in this exact sequence.
To display a list of all the papyri in the database, simply select the Submit/Search button without entering any search string.
Search Results Page
The Search Results Page by default displays result lists for four fields: editio princeps, LDAB, Pack and CPP. Besides, except for General searches (all fields) the results page displays the field or fields in which the search command has been entered. When the 'Sort by' option is selected, the field for which the results are sorted appears as a fifth field. On the Search Page the 'Sort by date' option is preselected.
In the list of search results the search strings that have been entered are highlighted, except when the 'Search all fields' option has been used.
Overview of the Catalogue Fields
For all Greek texts CPP contains a beta code version as well as a Unicode version. So far only the beta code texts can be searched for and only without diacritical signs. So only alphabetic characters can be entered. Each Greek text field offers information on the edition or editions used in our digitized text corpus, a link to the Unicode text and finally the same text in beta code.
Identification of the papyrus
Only the editio princeps and the re-edition in standard corpora are listed here. Later editions of the same text are listed in the bibliography. For standard corpora of papyri, e.g. P.Oxy., P.Ryl., all volume numbers inferior to 10 are preceded by a 0. This allows an easy search by volume. The names of the first editor as well as the dates of the first edition have been added between brackets.
location + inventory
Names of cities and institutions are in the language of the country where the papyri are held (e.g. Köln, Institut für Altertumskunde, 1755; Milano, Università Statale 740) except for Copenhagen and Cairo.
Refers to the numbering of The Leuven Database of Ancient Books (by W. Clarysse): http://ldab.arts.kuleuven.ac.be/
Refers to the numbering of the platform Trismegistos (TM): http://www.trismegistos.org/index.html
Refers to the numbering in R.A. Pack, The Greek and Latin Literary Texts from Greco-Roman Egypt, Ann Arbor 19652 and in the forthcoming Mertens-Pack3 (indicated with the siglum M-P and based on some preliminary publications by Paul Mertens and the collaborators of the CEDOPAL): http://www.ulg.ac.be/facphl/services/cedopal/MP3/index.html. Numbers are preceded by 00 (10-99) and 0 (100-999).
Refers to the numbering in: J. van Haelst, Catalogue des Papyrus Littéraires Juifs et Chrétiens, Paris 1976.
Refers to the numbering in: R. Cribiore, Writing, Teachers and Students in Graeco-Roman Egypt (American Studies in Papyrology, 36), Atlanta 1996.
Van Rossum-Steenbeek (VRS)
Refers to the numbering in: M. Van Rossum-Steenbeek, Greek Readers' Digests? Studies on a Selection of Subliterary Papyri, (Mnemosyne Supplementa 175), Leiden, 1998. Numbers from 1 to 9 are preceded by 0.
Refers to the numbering in: Homer and the Papyri (by D.Sutton): http://chs.harvard.edu/homerpapyri/index.html. Items that have been added by M.L. West (Homeri Ilias, Teubner, Stuttgart/München, 1998-2000) are marked by (W). In order to allow an easy search by numbers, numbers from 1 to 9 are preceded by 00 and those between 10 and 99 by 0.
Refers to the numbering in: M. Gigante, Catalogo dei papiri Ercolanesi, Napoli, 1979.
Refers to the identification number of our own catalogue (Catalogue of Paraliterary Papyri), which corresponds with the order in which the items have been entered into the catalogue and which is reproduced in the URL of each individual record. This numbering should allow easy quotation of the catalogue items in scientific literature.
Only centuries are given. When a text cannot be dated to one century we give two possibilities: AD 1 - AD 2, 1 BC - AD 1 (with a space between AD or BC and the number). A search for a range of dates will include all the centuries that are possible for this specific item. For example a search query for all papyri not earlier than AD 2 and not later than AD 5 includes the papyri dated in AD 1 - AD 2 and AD 5 - AD 6.
The most important studies dealing with the papyrus after the editio princeps are listed here, but if only part of the papyrus shows interest in mythology, the bibliography focuses exclusively on this part, leaving aside other secondary literature. Bibliographical references in Pack2 and in Mertens-Pack3 have not been taken over systematically. As a general rule, book reviews as well as publications making short mention of a papyrus are only retained when they add new information.
References to all published plates. But images published on the World-Wide Web are only registered in the following field (URL).
The URL where a description and/or a digital image of the papyrus can be found.
(quoted) ancient author
This search entry enables searches in both the fields 'ancient author' and 'quoted authorname' (see below) at the same time.
In most cases the author is unknown and referred to as "anon.". Also, the author often coincides with the scribe, as is natural in many subliterary texts such as school texts, and is only known by name in the rare instances where he reveals his identity in a subscription (e.g. the student Aurelius Theodoros in T.Borély 1568 = LDAB 5687). Other authors, all referred to in the traditional Latin spelling, include Pherecydes Syrius, Hellanicus, Acusilaus, Apollodorus, Dionysius Scytobrachion, Philodemus, Conon, Didymus, Mythographus Homericus, Theon, Ps.-Hyginus, Apollonius Sophista, Astrampsychus, Dictys Cretensis, Sallustius (only part of the papyrus).
All authors explicitly mentioned or quoted in the papyrus as well as the authors and works with which the papyrus fragment is related as a hypothesis, diegesis, summary, scholia or commentary - the latter category is mentioned between square brackets. For example when in a papyrus with a commentary (see the fiield 'genre') the 'quoted authorname' is identified as '[Pindarus, Pythia 12]; Euripides', this means that it is a commentary on Pindar, Pythia 12 with a citation from Euripides. The traditional Latin spelling is used throughout.
Because of the fragmentary nature of the texts the specification of the genre is often a matter of speculation. Moreover, in paraliterary texts a clear-cut division into genres is sometimes impossible. Therefore, the following categories have been used to give a first indication of the nature of these texts rather than as a systematic classification.
catalogue/list: this category encompasses simple word or name lists (containing at least one mythological name) as well as more elaborate catalogues of groups of mythological figures listed with indication of their ancestry and homeland (as in the Fabulae of Ps.-Hyginus).
catechism: any series of questions and answers on mythological matters. Most of them deal with Homeric questions, but this category also includes genres traditionally called 'zetemata' or 'problemata'.
commentary: any commentary on a poetic text and referring to it by means of continuous or selected lemmata or by means of diacritical signs. This category includes both learned hypomnemata and their more superficial counterparts - scholia minora, however, have been considered as a separate genre (see below). A special case is the Mythographus Homericus, which focuses exclusively on mythological explanation. In all other cases the mythological comments are only one of the diverse elements of the commentary.
diegesis: all fragments of Callimachean diegeseis.
hypothesis: this category includes both Homeric hypotheseis and narrative as well as learned hypotheseis to tragedy (Sophocles and Euripides).
learned discussion: any fragment containing a learned discussion on a specific question that has to do something with mythology and not belonging to a commentary but rather to a separate treatise or syngramma. However, for smaller fragments it is often unclear whether they come from such a treatise or from an elaborate comment on a lemma of a commentary. Most of these discussions investigate specialized Homeric problems but others deal with theoretical aspects of mythology in general.
list of gods: this subcategory of the preceding genre includes some very diverse lists of gods, made for use in school or in a religious context. Only Greek or Hellenized deities have been considered.
literary treatise: fragments from various works on literary criticism as far as they have something to do with mythology. These treatises focus on the merits of the treatment by Homer and other poets and usually they have only a secondary interest in the mythological subject.
marginal scholia: all marginal or interlinear comments that focus on mythology. Either they may be of very limited extent and have the character of personal annotations by the user of the manuscript or on the contrary they may consist of a full commentary (as often in codices)
narrative: any narrative of an unspecified nature that is not included in the four following categories. This category encompasses very different texts, e.g. fragments of a mythographic handbook as well as school exercises.
paraphrase: all grammatical and rhetorical paraphrases of Homeric passages or other poems.
scholia minora: glossaries or lists of word explanations related to parts of the Iliad or the Odyssey. See L. M. Raffaelli, Repertorio dei Papiri Contenenti Scholia Minora in Homerum, in: Richerche di Filologia Classica II: Filologia e Critica Letteraria della Grecità, Pisa 1984 and J. Lundon, Lexeis from the Scholia Minora in Homerum, ZPE 124 (1999) 25-52. Only papyri containing scholia with mythographic information, usually of an elementary nature, are included.
summary: all summaries that do not belong to the two preceding categories. Usually these are school exercises or summaries of a Homeric passage mingled with quotations.
Some broader categories on the basis of the contents and which may include several formal genres (see the preceding field). The type 'school text' on the whole corresponds with the identifications proposed in the catalogue of Cribiore whereas the type 'Homerica' encompasses all the papyri listed by Allen-Sutton and West (see the field 'Allen-Sutton-West')
General description of the contents of the papyrus.
proper name All proper names (personal as well as geographical names) occurring in the papyrus are listed. For the spelling direct transliteration from the Greek has been used throughout, because for some rare names the Latin counterparts are unknown or unfamiliar. The omega is transliterated as ô, the eta as ê, the upsilon as y and the sequence omicron-upsilon as ou. The names are normally listed according to the order in which they appear in the text; in the relevant cases, the column or the fragment in which they occur is indicated: one name may thus occur several times in the list (e.g. Achilleus in col. 1 and in col. 3). The following sigla are used in combination with the names: mythological name Subsection of the preceding field: all mythological proper names (personal as well as geographical names) occurring in the papyrus.
(R) = Reconstructed name (not actually found in the papyrus)
(Q) = Quoted name (coming from a quotation)
(S) = Subject of the text: it is clear that a passage or fragment is dealing with this figure although his name remains unmentioned
(?) = doubtful reading
(?, R) = doubtful reconstruction
(Q, R) = reconstructed name from a quotation
(3) = name occurring three times in the papyrus
(2 + R) = name occurring three times in the papyrus, twice in the preserved text and once as a reconstructed name
(2Q) = name occurring twice as a quotation
(Q, R + 2) = name occurring three times in the papyrus, twice in the preserved text and once in a reconstructed quotation.
All proper names (personal as well as geographical names) occurring in the papyrus are listed. For the spelling direct transliteration from the Greek has been used throughout, because for some rare names the Latin counterparts are unknown or unfamiliar. The omega is transliterated as ô, the eta as ê, the upsilon as y and the sequence omicron-upsilon as ou. The names are normally listed according to the order in which they appear in the text; in the relevant cases, the column or the fragment in which they occur is indicated: one name may thus occur several times in the list (e.g. Achilleus in col. 1 and in col. 3). The following sigla are used in combination with the names:
Subsection of the preceding field: all mythological proper names (personal as well as geographical names) occurring in the papyrus.
The four possible writing materials are: papyrus, parchment, ostracon, wooden tablet.
There are four possibilities: codex: is used when the same text continues on the back and when the layout (esp. the margins) points in that direction. A wooden tablet can be called a codex when it is or was originally part of a group of tablets. roll: an absolute criterion for identifying a papyrus fragment as part of a roll is the presence of stichometrical signs or column numbers. But there are various other criteria which, insufficient on their own, may in combination help to assess the likeliness of the fragment being part of a roll: sheet: the term applies mainly to ostraca and wooden tablets. For papyri, it indicates that the paraliterary text was clearly written on a single sheet that was not or no longer part of a roll or a codex or that the editors have good reasons to think so. Such sheets were usually cut from reused rolls. There are no absolute criteria for identifying a sheet, except perhaps when a fragment is inscribed along the fibres on both sides: then one side must have been written as a sheet (unless the text was written transversa charta). However, one has to consider the possibility that a fragment is a sheet in the following cases: uncertain: fragments which cannot with any probability be identified as a roll, a codex or a sheet.
- the hand is a neat, careful, competent bookhand.
- the fragment contains several columns of text or additional columns have to be assumed because the contents of the preserved column show that it cannot have stood on its own.
- the fragment contains one or more kollèseis.
- the text is written on the recto (along the fibres).
- the back is blank or of a totally different nature.
- the genre of the text: certain genres, such as learned discussions, commentaries, marginal scholia, collections of hypotheseis, are more likely to have been written on rolls.
A question-mark (?) after "roll" means that the bookform is uncertain, but that the fragment is more likely to have been part of a roll than an independent sheet.
- the text stands on its own in the preserved form.
- the text is written on the verso (across the fibres).
- the hand is irregular or inexperienced.
- the fragment originates from a school context or can be identified as a private copy.
A question-mark (?) after "sheet" means that the bookform is uncertain, but that the fragment is more likely to have been written on an independent sheet than part of a roll.
codex: is used when the same text continues on the back and when the layout (esp. the margins) points in that direction. A wooden tablet can be called a codex when it is or was originally part of a group of tablets.
roll: an absolute criterion for identifying a papyrus fragment as part of a roll is the presence of stichometrical signs or column numbers. But there are various other criteria which, insufficient on their own, may in combination help to assess the likeliness of the fragment being part of a roll:
sheet: the term applies mainly to ostraca and wooden tablets. For papyri, it indicates that the paraliterary text was clearly written on a single sheet that was not or no longer part of a roll or a codex or that the editors have good reasons to think so. Such sheets were usually cut from reused rolls. There are no absolute criteria for identifying a sheet, except perhaps when a fragment is inscribed along the fibres on both sides: then one side must have been written as a sheet (unless the text was written transversa charta). However, one has to consider the possibility that a fragment is a sheet in the following cases:
uncertain: fragments which cannot with any probability be identified as a roll, a codex or a sheet.
First the width then the length of the papyrus is given in centimeters.
There are two possibilities: 'along the fibres' or 'across the fibres'. Obviously, this information does not apply to ostraca and wooden tablets, and is also omitted in the case of codices.
Brief description of the text found on the reverse side of the paraliterary text - if the paraliterary text happens to be written on both sides (without being part of a codex) it is described here as 'opistograph'. When the bookform is 'codex' this field is normally left empty. In almost half of the items the indication is 'blank'. In only a minority of the other cases there is a reference to a published edition (standard edition and LDAB number); if no such reference is given the texts are unpublished. For these texts, most of which are documentary, we have tried to give a short specification of their nature. Whenever possible the texts have been dated (by means of the same notation system as for the paraliterary fragments).
state of preservation
Overall physical description of the papyrus with special attention to the number and size of the fragments, columns, margins, colleseis etc. This field also contains categories pertaining to the general nature and appearance of the fragment(s) but lacking in the other fields, such as cartonnage, palimpsest, etc,
This indicates the number of preserved columns or, when a papyrus contains several non-joining fragments, the highest number of consecutive columns in the largest fragment. However, in some cases where the total number of columns of the original text can be reconstructed with certainty or where the number of missing columns within the preserved portion of the text is obvious, these columns have been included in the count. For codices, the indication refers to the number of columns per page (usually one, occasionally two or more).
This indicates the width in cm of the preserved column(s) or the estimated width of the column(s) based on the editor's reconstruction of the lines: in this case it is followed by the siglum (R). Values inferior to 10 are preceded by a 0. This allows sorting the papyri by column width.
letters per line
Minimum and maximum number of letters per line or else the estimated number based on the editor's reconstruction of the lines: in this case it is followed by the siglum (R). Values inferior to 10 are preceded by a 0. This allows sorting the papyri by number of letters.
Here information is given on
- use of the following signs: high stop, middle stop, low stop, dicolon, paragraphos, forked paragraphos, coronis, diastole, supralineation, dash, obelos, obelos periestigmenos, diple, diple obelismene, chrism, apostrophe, stichometrical sign, quantity mark, line filler, hyphen, accent, breathing, trema
- use of abbreviations
- use of iota adscript and of supralinear letters
- deletions and corrections
- use of blank spaces, horizontal, vertical or oblique lines, lemmata, ekthesis, headings and decorations
- orthographic mistakes and itacism
In the search page some of the most relevant search strings have been preselected but other searches are also possible by means of the first and second "additional search field" button.
contains a traditional description of the hand(s) with information on letter size, way of execution and specific features. Usually the terminology of E.G. Turner has been adopted (Greek Manuscripts of the Ancient World, London 1987 and Ptolemaic Bookhands and Lille Stesichorus, in: Scrittura e Civiltà 4 (1980), p. 19-40, and for the Byzantine hands that of Cavallo G., Maehler H., Greek Bookhands of the Early Byzantine Period A.D. 300-800, London 1987. Only for school papyri we follow the terminology of R. Cribiore, Writing, Teachers and Students in Graeco-Roman Egypt, Atlanta 1996. Opinions of other authors are sometimes added when there is disagreement on the date based on paleographic criteria. In the search page some of the most relevant search strings have been preselected but other searches are also possible by means of the first and second "additional search field" button.
Date of the last update of this specific record and name of the person responsible for it.